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Vitamin A deficiency case study

Vitamin A deficiency is the leading cause of preventable blindness in children and increases the risk of disease and death from severe infections. In pregnant women it can cause night blindness and may increase the risk of maternal mortality (the death of women during pregnancy or within 42 days of givin Vitamin A is an essential nutrient required for maintaining immune function, eye health, vision, growth and survival in human beings (National Research Council 1989). Although animal studies that identi-fied vitamin A as a necessary factor for rat growth were conducted in the early 1900s and the chemical structure of the vitamin was elucidate 2.4 Case Study 2.5 Definition of Vitamin A 2.6 Definition of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) 2.7 Epidemiology 2.8 Etiologies and Pathogenesis 2.9 Clinical Features 2.10 Diagnosis 2.11 Case Management 2.12 Prevention and Control 2.1. Pre Test 2.1.1. Pre Test for the core module Attempt all the following questions 1 Read the entire case study (PDF | 113 K) Health Condition: Vitamin A deficiency affects approximately 21 percent of the developing world's preschool-aged children and leads to the deaths of over 800,000 women and children each year

Vitamin A deficiency has a plethora of clinical manifestations, ranging from xerophthalmia (practically pathognomonic) to disturbances in growth and susceptibility to severe infection (far more protean). Like other classical vitamin deficiency states (scurvy, rickets), some of the signs and symptoms of xerophthalmia were recognized long ago Vitamin A Deficiency in Nepal In the years before the national program, vitamin A deficiency was an important health problem in Nepal with 2-8 percent of preschool-aged children experienc-ing xerophthalmia or severe vitamin A deficiency.2,13 Several contextual factors can help to explain this high prevalence rate Several comprehensive reviews and case studies of vitamin A toxicity, which discuss both acute and chronic excess, have been published (19- 21). Whereas vitamin A deficiency is decidedly the greater problem, especially in developing nations, and has received much attention in terms of public health initiatives, excessive vitamin A intake may. This case study is a lesson for all involved on the importance of extensive note and history taking of patients and monitoring during a hospital stay, particularly if there is prolonged antibiotic use. Although rare, the development of vitamin K deficiency during an inpatient stay can have profound consequences, as this case study demonstrates

CASE 4: Reducing child mortality through vitamin A in

Vitamin A Deficiency and Clinical Disease: An Historical

acute and chronic toxic effects of vitamin A The

  1. D in the etiology of BPPV by comparing BPPV patients with hospital-based controls. Materials and methods: This is a case-control study comparing the prevalence of osteoporosis and vita
  2. K Deficiency Bleeding Disorder (HDN) 1. CASE STUDY 2. • Baby A was a term female infant born via uncomplicated vaginal delivery. • Maternal serologies were unremarkable. • she did not receive any prophylaxis or vaccine after delivery
  3. B2 deficiency. back. A 45 -year-old male, a known alcoholic from the previous 10 years reported to the physician for consultation. He complained of the burning of eyes and a sore tongue. There was a history of reduced appetite and mild abdo
  4. B12 deficiency using a case-control study carried out in 326 patients with thrombosis (case group) and 351 patients from the same hospital (control group). Apart from the classic risk factors, a numbe
  5. C deficiency should be excluded in adults presenting with bruising. It also offers a supplementation regimen that resulted in improvement of clinical symptoms as well as laboratory value normalization
  6. deficiency after weight loss surgery can cause vision loss in newborns, case study shows Date: July 16, 2010 Source: Elsevier Summary: Biliopancreatic diversion surgery for morbid obesity.
  7. D Deficiency Clinical Case BD is a 67- year female with PMHx of HTN, hyperlipidemia, OA and varicose veins. She presents for her medicare wellness. She has a negative falls screening. She has a BMI of 3030 studies to 10 studies for systematic review, 7 for met analysi
(PDF) Vitamin D deficiency among subfertile women: case

Vitamin K deficiency: a case study The Biomedical

Vitamin B 12 deficiency causes hematologic and neuropsychiatric manifestations that may occur together or independently. 15, 16 Megaloblastic anemia due to folate deficiency and other causes shares the same hematologic manifestations as vitamin B 12 deficiency but lacks the neurologic features (see Case 2). 4, Medical Case Reports was searched using the terms vitamin B12, deficiency, and case study. Abstract. Vitamin B12 (B12) is an essential nutrient needed for proper nervous system . function and for the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. Deficiencies in B12 can lead to inefficient erythropoiesis and megaloblastic anemia. The purpose of.

Nutritional vitamin D deficiency: a case report Cases

  1. D deficiency: a case-control study. Rapisarda L(1), Mazza MR(1), Tosto F(1), Gambardella A(1), Bono F(2), Sarica A(3). Author information: (1)Headache Center, Institute of Neurology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Magna Graecia University, Viale Europa, 88100, Catanzaro, Italy
  2. A deficiency in a 5½ mo. old infant is presented. The multiple manifestations of vita
  3. A deficiency among children attending a diarrhoea treatment centre in Bangladesh: a case-control study. D Mahalanabis Clinical Sciences Division, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Vitamin A Deficiency after Gastric Bypass Surgery: An

200,000 IU of vitamin A for 2 days followed by another dose 2 weeks later for severely malnourished children older than 12 years of age with vitamin A deficiency (WHO 1999); [6] however, more recent case studies have shown that much less supplementation can lead to reversal of symptoms. Functional improvement o The Story of Vitamin A. The landmark work on vitamin A by Alfred Sommer, MD, MHS, dean emeritus of the School of Public Health, has been credited with saving the lives of millions of children around the world.. In 1976, Dr. Sommer, who had just finished his residency in ophthalmology at Johns Hopkins' Wilmer Institute, began a series of complex intervention trials in Indonesia that revealed. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a public health problem in many developing countries. Thousands of preschool children go blind every year, and many of them die due to VAD. Also VAD weakens the immune system, making children to be prey to infection diseases. Adults are also affected by VAD, and the most affected population groups are pregnant and lactating women

Megaloblastic Anemias - Nursing Crib

Case deficiency vitamin study a How to start off a goals essay i am like a bird essay, reflective essay on reading and writing habits. Essay on developmental psychology. Format for opinion essayEssay resolving conflict example of scientific definition essay. study a vitamin Case deficiency, abortion sociology research paper, ap english exam. Recently, it was shown that although vitamin A deficiency by itself caused little change in the jejunal epithelium, the jejunal atrophy induced by rotavirus infection was greater in deficient than in replete animals . An association between vitamin A deficiency and increased diarrhea morbidity has been reported Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin; vitamin D is essential to sustain health and it protects against osteoporosis. It is crucial to the human body's physiology in terms of muscular movement and neurological signal transmission, and to the immune system in defense against invading pathogens. This was a case of a 26-year-old Sudanese woman who presented with a 2-year history of anosmia.

Children with signs of severe vitamin A deficiency (eye signs) are treated with 100 000 units of oral vitamin A daily for 2 days followed by a third dose at 6 weeks. Children with mild signs only should receive 100 000 units once if they are 1 year or less, and 100 000 units daily for 2 days if they are over 1 year Vitamin Cmay be necessary for the conversion of folic to folinic acid (Nichol & Welch, 1950; May et al., 1951) because when a megaloblastic anaemia does occur in scurvy it always responds to the administration of vitamin Calone (Goldberg, 1963). In this case the absence of macrocytosis andthe normal serum folate leve More evidence that routine multivitamin use should be avoided. Scott Gavura on December 19, 2013. If scientific evidence guides our health decisions, we will look back at the vitamin craze of the last few decades with disbelief. Indiscriminate use is, in most cases, probably useless and potentially harmful

A guide to acquired vitamin K coagulophathy diagnosis and

Which patient would you most likely suspect has a vitamin D deficiency? A vegan female computer engineer. A patient presenting with _____ is a characteristic of a vitamin D deficiency. Nutrition chapter 3 case study. 7 terms. RNJae2019. Chapter 15 - Nutrition. 39 terms. HKemp3. Case Study Chapter 7. 7 terms. WanderL. Chapter 10 - Nutrition. Water Soluble Vitamin Case Studies. STUDY. PLAY. A patient presents with fatigue, leg paralysis, nerve damage and early signs of heart failure. Also pitting edema. Patient has Beriberi- a deficiency of B1 Thiamin. Patient has abnormal skin, eyes, nerves, mouth &tongue- smooth tongue w/o pilli, rash/irritation around mouth

current case and the existing literature on vitamin C deficiency. The child in this case study is unusual due to her gender and absence of special needs. This study is the first to examine the dietary aspects of vitamin C deficiency. Case presentation A five-year-old typically developing female was referre However, only a few small studies and case reports have observed the benefits of supplementing with biotin, so a biotin-rich diet may be the best choice (7, 8, 9). Summary Biotin is a B vitamin.

Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin that is important for vision and cell differentiation. Learn about conditions that can result when vitamin A is deficient, including night blindness and. We conducted a matched case-control study to examine vitamin D levels and rates of vitamin D deficiency in sixty nine patients presenting with their FEP and sixty nine controls matched for age, sex and ethnicity. Differences between groups were tested using student's-t tests, paired t-tests and odds ratios for further analysis We aimed to study the association between vitamin D deficiency and extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We conducted a case-control study including all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis hospitalized in the infectious diseases department over a two-year period from April 2017 until April 2019 Vitamin B12 Deficiency and a Patient Case Study - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online Though not all cases are as severe as the boy featured in this case study, the number of cases of mild rickets is creeping up. Getting enough vitamin D, known as 'the sunshine vitamin' is a challenge for many children in the UK. The recommended amount of vitamin D intake per day is 10 micrograms

Case Study: Fatigue And Nutrient Deficiencies Liver Docto

FOLATE AND VITAMIN B12 DEFICIENCY 2 CASE STUDY REPORT PI: Patient MH is a 72 yo female with general pancytopenia admitted to facility 1014 on March 15, 2015. She weighs 165 lbs and is 5'1. CC: My doctor felt that my bloodwork needed a second opinion.. Thiamine deficiency occurs sporadically in people who are socially isolated, suffer loss of appetite and self neglect. In these cases 'mixed' vitamin deficiency syndromes are more common and respond better to vitamin B-complex treatment (Carney, 1971). Multiple vitamin B deficiencie Vitamin A deficiency is practically unknown in the west, where it is found in most foods. For individuals in developing countries, however, vitamin A is a matter of life or death Chronic vitamin A toxicity in older children and adults usually develops after doses of > 100,000 units (> 30,000 RAE)/day have been taken for months. Megavitamin therapy is a possible cause, as are massive daily doses (150,000 to 350,000 units [50,000 to 120,000 RAE]) of vitamin A or its metabolites, which are sometimes given for nodular acne or other skin disorders

Vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of anemia. Pancytopenia and hemolysis are less frequently observed in vitamin B12 deficiency. Reported is the case of a 58-year-old man who presented with dyspnea on exertion, fatigue, and unintentional weight loss Given the array of symptoms a vitamin B 12 deficiency can cause, the condition can be overlooked or confused with something else. Vitamin B 12 deficiency symptoms may include: strange sensations, numbness, or tingling in the hands, legs, or feet. difficulty walking (staggering, balance problems) anemia. a swollen, inflamed tongue Ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED) is a rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder which usually starts in childhood. The clinical presentation is very similar to Friedreich ataxia, most patients have progressive truncal and extremity ataxia, areflexia, positive Babinski sign, dysarthria and sensory neuropathy Further studies may also be useful to evaluate whether liposomal B12 supplements are superior to conventional supplements and what their possible role in the treatment of patients with Β12 deficiency is. Key words. vitamin B12, liposomes, case series study, sublingual administration. Introductio Research findings about vitamin D and COVID-19 have been mixed and sparse:. A study of 77 frail elderly patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in France concluded that vitamin D supplements taken regularly during the year before a COVID-19 diagnosis were associated with less severe disease and better survival than taking no vitamin D or receiving supplementation shortly after diagnosis

Screening and Treatment of Vitamin D Deficiency: Approach

Vitamin B2, or riboflavin, is a member of naturally-occurring compounds known as flavins. Flavins have a critical role in numerous biochemical reactions, pri.. This study aimed at assessing the relationship between thrombosis, hyperhomocysteinemia and vitamin B12 deficiency using a case-control study carried out in 326 patients with thrombosis (case group) and 351 patients from the same hospital (control group). Apart from the classic risk factors, a number of hematological variables were evaluated, including serum vitamin B12 (B12), red cell. Although in many studies, the relationship between autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto) and Vitamin D deficiency was shown, no research has been performed on the role of vitamin D in non-autoimmune hypothyroidism. This was a case-control study in Endocrinology clinic of Jahrom (south of Iran). The patients with Hashimoto (n = 633) and non-Hashimoto hypothyroidism (n = 305), along with a.

Vitamin A | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State UniversityPancytopenia: A clinico-hematological study Manzoor F

vitamin B1 deficiency, and one of four deficient patients experienced significant improvement In a study of 125 adolescents, vitamin B12 levels were significantly lower in the patient group com-pared with the control group case report, a patient with POTS and low 1.25(OH)(2) vitamin D3 level, but normal 25(OH) vitamin D level We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for studies that included terms for Vitamin D and COVID-19. Results: The data was obtained from 10 participants consist of 50% male and 50% female. The mean of age was 49.6 years. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in this case was 90% and 10% of insufficiency

Vitamin A Deficiency - A Case Study in Preventive Medicine

Background: Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a preva-lent worldwide health concern. Several factors are associated with vitamin B12 deficiency including lifestyle, genetic predis-position, and malfunctions in the absorption and transport of vitamin B12. In the current case-control study, we aimed a Case study on vitamin d deficiency Many of our advisors manage assets, so whether you're part of an RIA, B/D, or other firm, we'll add to your existing AUM revenue. C.P.A.'s. Our C.P.A. partners rarely specialize in insurance & investments - through education we make your practice stronger and more comprehensive Valuck RJ, Ruscin JM. A case-control study on adverse effects: H2 blocker or proton pump inhibitor use and risk of vitamin B 12 deficiency in older adults. J Clin Epidemiol. 2004;57:422-428. Ruscin JM, Page RL 2nd, Valuck RJ. Vitamin B(12) deficiency associated with histamine(2)-receptor antagonists and a proton-pump inhibitor Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Case Study of Vadodara, Ahmedabad and Surat City. International Journal of Research and Scientific Innovation, 2015. hemali shah. Arti Rajyaguru. kazi girish. hemali shah. Arti Rajyaguru. kazi girish. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper

Although vitamin B12 deficiency is a well-known cause of hematological and neuropsychiatric illness, the presentation of combined severe pancytopenia, demyelination and prominent psychiatric impairment is rare. We present a case of a previously healthy 55-year-old East African man with severe vitamin B12 deficiency (serum vitamin B12 22pmol/L) secondary to pernicious anemia The Best Place to Improve Vitamin B12 Deficiency Case Study Your Grades. Stop staring at a blank page and get insightful college essay samples from the experienced writers. All you need to do is Vitamin B12 Deficiency Case Study to ask: Can someone help me with my essay serum vitamin D deficiency is associated with psoriasis[9,10] requires further study with an appropriately large sample size to establish and confirm the relationship. This multicenter, case-control study was conducted in three major hospitals in Makkah, Saudi Arabia: King Abdulaziz Genera Because vitamin B6 is present in most foods, dietary deficiency is rare. Secondary deficiency may result from various conditions. Symptoms can include peripheral neuropathy, a pellagra-like syndrome, anemia, and seizures, which, particularly in infants, may not resolve when treated with antiseizure drugs

Disclaimer: is the online writing service that offers custom written papers, including research papers, thesis papers, essays and others. Online writing service includes the research material as well, but these services are for assistance purposes only. All papers Vitamin B1 Deficiency Case Study from this agency should be properly referenced Key Points : Right from the time coronavirus pandemic vitamin D is the nutrient that has been in the news. There have been many journals and case studies that have mentioned that the covid-19 patients have divided D deficiency as this sunlight vitamin isn't obtained by them naturally. Studies say that 80% of the covid-19 patients are Vitamin D deficient. A co-author Jose L. Hernandes has. A study 25 years ago showed vitamin A deficiency to be rare in Cape Town, even in children with severe protein-energy malnutrition, 38 and it still appears to be rare. A search of the computer.

Abstract. Worldwide, the most seriously limiting nutrient deficiencies in the human diet are iron, zinc, iodine—and vitamin A. Vitamin A is an essential nutrient needed for the visual system, growth, development, and a healthy immune system. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is most prevalent among young children and pregnant and nursing women A, it is evident that she presents a type of anemic condition which is developed as a result of vitamin B-12 deficiency. Case Study A: Pernicious Anemia. Evidently, this pernicious anemia is attributed to the following symptoms; little sense of touch, a sensation on the feet which tingles, dementia, difficulty in walking and tottering gait, and. A Case Study Medical Nutrition Therapy I Fall 2013 Group 2- The Best of Times Hokies September 24, 2013 . A vitamin E deficiency may be a sign of hemolytic anemia.7 5.) There are two classifications of iron in the body: 1.) Functional iron is located in hemoglobin, myoglobin and Fe containing enzymes This case study describes a 58-year-old man with known MTHFR defi-ciency and his subsequent uneventful anesthetic care during a total knee replacement. Keywords: Elevated homocysteine, homocysteinemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR deficiency. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency: A Case Repor Folate deficiency is an uncommon cause of pyrexia. We describe the case of a 29-year-old male who presented with a pyrexial illness subsequently attributed to megaloblastic anaemia secondary to severe folate deficiency, after exclusion of other infective or inflammatory causes. A temperature chart documenting the course of the patient's pyrexia is presented and potential pathophysiological.

Vitamin C - Assignment Point

with Osteoporosis and Vitamin D Deficiency: A Case Controlled Study OBJECTIVE: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a common type of vertigo caused by the peripheral vestibular system. The majority of cases are accepted as idiopathic In a recent study, polyamines, found in foods such as wheat germ, fermented soy, and matured cheeses, 2 were shown to stave off memory decline in fruit flies. 3 The researchers are now embarking on studies to see whether a polyamine-rich diet might have the same effect on humans. I believe chances are, they'll find that this is indeed the case

Are You Vitamin D Deficient? Signs To Tell and 5 NaturalFruits to Avoid When Taking Coumadin | LIVESTRONG

case study 1 (vitamin c deficiency ) a presentation discuss the side effect of severe vitamin c deficiency including medical dental history diagnosis and treatment plane. Read more Folic Acid Deficiency Case Study. My stomach hurts and I have been throwing up today.. Laura Jones is a 43-year-old woman with a 1-day history of vomiting and mild abdominal pain. The pain radiates down to the lower abdominal quadrants bilaterally. She presents to the ED after experiencing some chest discomfort late in the day

Vitamin A Deficiency - Latin America - American Academy of

Vitamin D: When vitamin D is low, the hair may thin or stop growing. Zinc: Zinc deficiency can cause similar hair loss to iron and may also damage any remaining hair, causing it to break. Selenium. It was interesting to have further evidence that larger amounts of Vitamin D are needed to boost serum levels. Woody's case study above could be me. 24ng was my level when tested last. I am taking 1000IU a day to boost this. Millie 123's vitamin D book gave a formula for increasing this to 3 - 4000IU a day Vitamin B12 Deficiency: Case Study of Vadodara, Ahmedabad and Surat City Dr. Arti. J. Rajyaguru1, 2Dr. Hemali. Vitamin B 12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system. Psychological indices related to dementia and depression may be improved through B1

Vitamin D & Visual Disturbances: A Case Study

The purpose of this review is to examine published case studies on vitamin B12 deficiency in adults, including a report of B12 deficiency in regards to causes, clinical manifestations, treatment/outcomes, and biomarkers of B12 status. A total of 89 applicable case studies were reviewed 8 A case-control study that compared 25,956 patients who had vitamin B 12 deficiency with 184,199 control patients found a significantly increased risk of vitamin B 12 deficiency in patients who.

A Case of Hypocalcemia with Severe Vitamin D Deficiency

Being institutionalized is an additional risk factor for vitamin D deficiency. A case-control study of 445 institutionalized, osteoporotic women from nine countries (Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Spain and UK) found that, in women not taking vitamin D supplements, the serum 25(OH)D concentration was lower in. The study finds high doses of vitamin D have no Pereira is now leading a new study to determine whether a vitamin D deficiency has any The ideal approach is case-by-case analysis, if. The results showed no association between vitamin D levels over a lifetime and the risk of fracture. This latest study contradicts the UK government's recent view, but not a host of earlier clinical trials.. In 2014, a review and meta-analysis of 31 vitamin D supplement trials found no effect on all fractures. Much of our strong belief in the benefits of vitamin D came from studies of.

Case Study 4: A case of Vitamin E deficiency Scientia et

Case study- Scurvy (vitamin C deficiency) back. Case Details. A 4 -year-old boy was brought for consultation for hematuria, edema of lower extremities as well as swollen right leg. He was the 12th born in a poor family, where one previous child died from malnutrition and dehydration in the period of infancy Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) remains a public health problem in many developing countries. Thousands of preschool children go blind every year, and many of them die due to VAD. Also VAD weakens the immune system, making children to be prey to infection diseases Vitamin D can be used either to supplement dietary intake or to treat a deficiency of vitamin D. In the case of supplementation, it is given as a prophylactic measure to prevent deficiency-related problems, and it is recommended for breastfed infants On adopting the cutoff concentration level of Serum 25 (OH) D as < 30 ng/ml for defining vitamin D deficiency the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 43.95% in Group A and 98.41% in Group B

Case Study on Vitamin D Deficiency CaseStudyHub

Esther Yerena Lauren Grosch Daniel Watson Melinda Torres Jeanette Guerrero Thiamin Deficiency: A Directed Case Study 1.The Chinese community were thiamin deficient because they would consume refined white rice. Refining the rice strips the husk were thiamin is stored in. 2. When the rice is washed, the water will remove the aleurone layer of the rice seed 3.Metabolic acidosis is an increase of. Optic neuropathy is a rare complication of vitamin B12 deficiency. Incomplete treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency with oral B12 supplementation coupled with oral folic acid can aggravate neurological impairment secondary to vitamin B12 deficiency if the B12 deficiency is not corrected first. The patient in this teaching case report developed. Thus, vitamin B 6 deficiency may result in a pellagra-like presentation (reviewed in detail below in the discussion of vitamin B 3 deficiency). In this case, giving vitamin B 3 does not result in significant improvement, and this failure helps to establish the diagnosis of vitamin B 6 deficiency. 32 It is believed that pellagrous lesions in. A Spanish study demonstrated that women who were sun seekers had only about one-eleventh the risk of hip fracture as those who stayed indoors. Sun exposure produces vitamin D in the skin, which is absolutely essential for the absorption of calcium. However, vitamin D supplementation is not nearly as effective as sunlight Immune system and Autoimmune conditions case studies B12 not only affects the red blood cells, it also affects platelets and white cells, including immune system: 30: Can people die of B12 deficiency? Two case studies contrasted. 31: B12 and Adrenal insufficiency. 32: Common immunodeficiency. 33: Cardiovascular/ respiratory syste

1. Eye Diseases. When vitamin A deficiency (VAD) becomes prolonged, other eye infections can set in and lead to blindness or even death. Children with acute VAD are also usually malnourished. Eating vitamin-A rich foods can cut your risk of developing eye problems like age-related macular degeneration and cataract. 5 In our study, comparing the frequency of vitamin B 12 deficiency between the case and controls revealed a nonsignificant association between melasma and vitamin B 12 deficiency. Although studies have determined the role of vitamin B 12 deficiency in different skin lesions and hyperpigmentation)[12, 13, 22], no other study has determined its. In this case study, the Chinese migrant workers had a severe thiamine deficiency compared to the Malays and the Tamil population. The reason behind the Chinese community experiencing a thiamine deficiency was due to the type of rice consumed by the workers. Polished rice does not contain thiamin A recent case-study also showed that azathioprine immunosuppressant had induced pellagra in a 50-year old Chinese woman suffering from optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. In another case-study, Das and colleagues stated that pellagra was seen in a 57-year old Nepali man who had pulmonary Koch disease, and a history of smoking and drinking. [14