Bioremediation of diuron contaminated soils by a novel degrading microbial consortium. Villaverde J(1), Rubio-Bellido M(2), Merchán F(2), Morillo E(2). Author information: (1)Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Sevilla (IRNAS-CSIC), Spain The bioremediation of hydrocarbon in contaminated soils by mixed cultures of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was investigated. The mixtures or consortia of bacteria, denoted as Consortium 1 and Consortium 2 consisted of 3 and 6 bacterial strains, respectively. Bacterial strains used in this study were from the Center for Research in Enzymes and. Combined Microbial Consortium Inoculation and Black Locust Planting Is Effective in the Bioremediation of Waste Drill Cuttings Hanjun Liu 1,2 , Lirong Chen 2 , En T. Wang 3 , Yihao Liu 1 , Lingzi Zhang 1 , Ke Zhao 1 , Yunfu Gu 1 , Xiumei Yu 1 , Menggen Ma 1 , Petri Penttinen 1 , Xiaoping Zhang 1 , Min Huang 2 , Liangji Deng 1* and Qiang Chen 1 In line with that, Canstein et al. (2002) reported a consortium of marine bacteria to efficiently remove mercury in a bioreactor in a disturbance-independent mechanism. A new combination of genetic systems in bacteria for the potential degradation of phenol and heavy metals was also described. For optimum microbial bioremediation. The novel diuron-degrading microbial consortium was capable to mineralise diuron. Bioremediation is the intentional use of biodegradation to eliminate environmental pollutants from sites where they have been released (Chishti et al., 2013). Bioremediation technology uses the physiological potential of microorganisms and plants for the.
This study would provide a better knowledge of the enhanced application of microbial consortium for the efficient bioremediation of PCBs. 2. Materials and methods2.1. Chemicals, microorganism and cultur Microbial Consortium. Microbial consortia employing two different microbes each specific for a particular activity is a more recent approach that has been utilized for metal recovery and fungal system employing Penicillium commune and Cladosporium perangustum have been used for removal of hexavalent chromium from industrial effluents (Sharma and Malaviya, 2016) Effective microbial consortium: Microbial consortium was formulated from the isolates, to evaluate the degradation properties of individual isolates as compared to different consortium so formulated. Mutagenesis: Induced mutation was carried out by exposing 24 hours old culture to UV radiation for 30 mins. The degradatio The essence of bioremediation technology is the degradation of pollutants through microbial metabolic activities. A majority of the microorganisms used in the process of remediation are indigenous.
Bioremediation of oil spillage in soils using consortia of microbes beckons much exploration. The present study involves bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils from north Chennai, India, using indigenous microbial consortia. Totally, 32 positive oil degrading isolates were obtained from 3 different locations, i.e., petrol filling stations, automobile workshops and oil refineries A native microbial consortium for the bioremediation of soil contaminated with diesel fuel in Korea was constructed and its biodegradation ability was assessed. Microbial strains isolated from Korean terrestrial environments, with the potential to biodegrade aliphatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, and resins, were investigated and among them, eventually seven microbial strains, Acinetobacter oleivorans.
This study explores the possibility of using coconut coir for bioremediation of sewage by immobilization of activity-specific microbial consortium. Molecular methods confirm the effectiveness of the designed microbial consortium and reactor studies confirm the potential of the technique for removal of organic load in sewage The bioremediation of chlorpyrifos using microbial consortium will be a beneficial technique for degradation of chlorpyrifos wastes into less toxic compounds. Microorganisms play an important role in intermediate degradation and subsequent mineralization of pesticides. Microbial degradation of a given pesticide may be o This work reveals the potential for in situ bioremediation of tailings with this natural microbial consortium. Oil sands are deposits of sand, clay, water, and bitumen, and their processing for oil extraction produces wastewater that is toxic to wildlife and ecosystems (Dalmia 2013 ; Rogers et al. 2002 ; Yergeau et al. 2013 )
In this study, the capacity of microbial consortium and bacteria-pure strains isolated from a biomixture (soil-straw; 1:1, v/v) used to treat agricultural effluents under real conditions were evaluated during a bioremediation process of five pesticides commonly used Yucatan Mexico Bacosa et al. studied kerosene degradation by microbial community that was predominantly identified as Betaproteobacteria and described that the microbial consortium preferentially utilized aromatic fractions, which are more toxic than aliphatic fractions. This finding is useful when the risk-based bioremediation is considered The invention relates to a method for biodegrading dithiocarbamates or related compounds which are present in a contaminated environment. The method involves contacting the contaminated environment with a microbial consortium comprised of methylotrophic bacteria such as the genera of bacteria: Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, and Hypomicrobium, and maintaining themicrobial consortium in contact with. This study evaluated the bioremediation of SMX in WWTP effluents using a tertiary treatment composed by microalgae-bacteria consortium under low intensity artificial LED illumination, and also the assessment of sulfonamide resistance gene (sul1). The removal of SMX from WWTP effluents were 54.34 ± 2.35%, in which the microalgae-bacteria.
The microbial community analysis revealed that it was the minor species but not the dominant ones in the IRB consortium that promoted the activity of iron reduction. Meanwhile, some indigenous bacteria with the potential of iron reduction, such as Clostridium , Anaeromyxobacter , Bacillus , Pseudomonas , Geothrix , and Acinetobacter , were also. Microbial Consortium in Bioremediation of Petroleum Product Petroleum hydrocarbons are not easily degradable. Individual microorganisms can metabolize only a limited quantity of hydrocarbon substrates. So the mixed cultures of microorganisms are required to increase the rate of petroleum biodegradation. The common bacterial genera exploited for. BIOREMEDIATION OF HYDROCARBONS Petroleum and its products are hydrocarbons. Oil constitute a variety of hydrocarbons (xylanes, naphthalenes, octane's, camphor etc,). The pollutants can be degraded by a consortium of microorganisms, e.g Pseudomoas, Corynebacterium, Arthrobacter, Mycobacterium and Nocardia Bioremediation Use of the extensive range of microbial metabolism offers opportunities to those interested in Bioremediation . Through consortia, synthetic biologists have been able to design an enhanced efficiency in bacteria that can excrete bio-surfactants as well as degrade hydrocarbons for the interests of cleaning oil contamination in.
In this study, the capacity of microbial consortium and bacteria-pure strains isolated from a biomixture (soil-straw; 1:1, v/v) used to treat agricultural effluents under real conditions were evaluated during a bioremediation process of five pesticides commonly used Yucatan Mexico Bioremediation of Toluene using Microbial Consortium Obtained from Industrial Effluent M.H. Fulekar1*, T.N. Godambe2, Koul Sheetal2 and Nair Darshana2 1School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Gandhinagar-482030, India 2Environment Biotechnology Lab, Department of Life Sciences, University of Mumbai The microbial consortium was deployed in a permeable layer of soil materials that was constructed over a hot spot of chlorinated compound discharge in the wetland. The field test was monitored for its effectiveness in removing chlorinated compounds and prevented the release of these toxic compounds in the waters of West Branch Canal Creek, a. the agro-base carriers. The ability of the immobilized consortium to treat Port Harcourt refinery wastewater was studied in comparison with the free form of these bacteria. After 15 days of a laboratory scale bioremediation set up, agro-waste immobilized consortium showed a reduction in phenol (99%), BOD 5 (96%), COD (92%) oil and grease (93%) In situ bioremediation potential of an oily sludge-degrading bacterial consortium. Mishra S (1), Jyot J, Kuhad RC, Lal B. Author information: (1)Tata Energy Research Institute, New Delhi, India. A field-scale study was conducted in a 4000 m2 plot of land contaminated with an oily sludge by use of a carrier-based hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial.
Abstract: Bioaugmentation is a bioremediation option based on increasing the natural in-situ microbial population that possesses the ability to degrade the contaminating pollutant. In this study, a diesel-degrading consortium was obtained from an oil-contaminated soil. The diesel-degrading consortium was grown on wood waste that was plasma. Bioremediation has been widely applied to decontaminate petroleum-contaminated sites. However, successful bioremediation remains challenging due to complicated environmental factors that are present in petroleum-contaminated soil. Hence, in this study, we used a constructed bacterial consortium immobilized on sawdust through a series of microcosm experiments to identify the main factors. Bioremediation, the use of microorganisms specifically oil degrading bacteria can enhance and breakdown contaminants such as oil sludge into less harmful substances . One commonly used bioremediation method involves the use of single and microbial consortium as bioaugmentation strategies. Previous studies by Sorkhoh showed tha The goal of this research was to simulate natural attenuation processes for uranium (U) by constructing a bioremediation system based on microbial mats. Ancient microbial consortia, such as microbial mats, have evolved the capacity to manage hostile environments and potentially bioremediate metal-contaminated water. To facilitate the engineering applications of microbial mats, the constituent.
Microbial consortia have a more dominant impact on the bioremediation of contaminated soils compared with a single strain. Plant-microbe associated bioremediation techniques are effective and cost-efficient methods of cleaning polluted sites, which is a promising method and could be used widely to significantly remove pesticides from the soil . So, there is a need for the formulation of effective microbial consortium which can biodegrade the effluent in minimum time period. The bacterial isolates R1, R5, R10, R12, R21, R24, R25, R27, L1, L6, L10, L13,. Microbial remediation of pollutants involves the use of microorganisms to degrade pollutants either completely to water and carbon dioxide (for organic pollutants) or into less toxic forms. In the case of nonbiodegradable inorganic compounds, bioremediation takes the form of bioaccumulation or conversion of one toxic species to a less toxic form for example Cr(VI) is converted to less toxic (III) Oil spill pollution remains a serious concern in marine environments and the development of effective oil bioremediation techniques are vital. This work is aimed at developing an autochthonous hydrocarbon-degrading consortium with bacterial strains with high potential for hydrocarbons degradation, optimizing first the growth conditions for the consortium, and then testing its hydrocarbon.
1. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2020 Feb;104(2):253-258. doi: 10.1007/s00128-019-02776-x. Epub 2020 Jan 2. Bioremediation of Hexanoic Acid and Phenanthrene in Oil Sands Tailings by the Microbial Consortium BioTiger™ Microbial-bioremediation process utilizes the indigenous microbial communities to clean up the environmental contaminations. The rate at which the contaminants are detoxified depends on a number of factors such as the composition of the indigenous microbial communities, nature, and extent of the pollutant and environmental conditions. The recent advances in bioremediation technology using microbial consortium has been found effective for treatment of pesticides in soil. In the present study, a Surface Soil Treatment Unit has been designed wherein bioremediation of commonly used pesticides namely chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, and trichlopyr butoxyethyl ester at.
Microbial Strains for the Construction of a Native Microbial Consortium. To construct a native microbial consortium for the bioremediation of diesel fuel-contaminated soil in Korea, we obtained a list of candidate microorganisms potentially capable of degrading diesel fuel compounds, including aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), or resins, that were isolated from. The glycoconjugates increased the rate of OP degradation with a microbial consortium due to cumulative effect of microbial communities . In a study a seawater B. methylotrophicus produced glycoconjugate biosurfactants that reduce surface tension, can be used for bioremediation purposes [ 63 ] Engineering microbial consortia to enhance biomining and bioremediation. Karl D. Brune and Travis S. Bayer *. Centre for Synthetic Biology and Innovation, Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London, London, UK. In natural environments microorganisms commonly exist as communities of multiple species that are capable of performing. . 1. Two or more microbial groups living symbiotically. Learn more in: Technological Approach of Bioremediation Using Microbial Tools: Bacteria, Fungi, and Algae. Find more terms and definitions using our Dictionary Search. Microbial Consortium appears in: Handbook of Research on Inventive Bioremediation..
Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: Composition of the microbial consortium. Journal of the Serbian Chemical Society, 2009. Samira Ali. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper A microbial consortium or microbial community, is two or more bacterial or microbial groups living symbiotically. Consortiums can be endosymbiotic or ectosymbiotic, or occasionally may be both.The protist Mixotricha paradoxa, itself an endosymbiont of the Mastotermes darwiniensis termite, is always found as a consortium of at least one endosymbiotic coccus, multiple ectosymbiotic species of. The bioremediation and rhizoremediation treatments included the use of an artificial consortium made up of plant growth‐promoting rhizobacteria and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon‐degrading bacteria, and the combined use of the mentioned consortium along with pasture plants respectively Rhizosphere bioremediation of pesticides by microbial consortium and potential microorganism. Author(s) : Fulekar, M. H. Author Affiliation : School of Environment and Sustainable Development, Central University of Gujarat, Sector 30, Gandhinagar 382 030, India The Schulich School of Engineering, Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering at the University of Calgary is seeking applications for a Postdoctoral Scholar in utilization of microbial consortium for environmental and energy application with the special focus on bioremediation of oil pollution.This full-time fixed term position is for one year and may be renewed contingent on.
Bioremediation is a promising method, where wastewater adapted consortium of microbial species is used for the degradation of pollutants from water. The present investigation was carried out with primary objective to study oil and phenol degradation using the bacteria isolated from waste water itself in the form of a consortium. Material and. The bioremediation and rhizoremediation treatments included the use of an artificial consortium made up of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria, and the combined use of the mentioned consortium along with pasture plants respectively Bioremediation using microorganisms shows great potential for future development due to its environmental compatibility and possible cost-effectiveness. A wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, yeasts, and algae, can act as biologically active methylators, which are able to at least modify toxic species Bioremediation using suitable Microbial Consortium. The objective of the study is: 1. To reduce concentration of organic pollutants in water body and to record an improvement in water quality by analysing pollution indicative parameters like BOD, COD, pH, TDS, TSS and Chlorides. 2. To observe reduction in odour and reduction of bottom sludge. 3
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): The aerobic bioremediation of phenol has been carried out in a specially designed bioreactor where activated cow dung slurry was used as a source of microbial consortium containing various concentrations of phenol i.e., 100, 250, 500, 1000 mg/L. A phenol concentration of 1000 mg/L was found inhibitory for cow-dung. Bioremediation utilizing microbes works through the use of a microbial consortium. In this context, a microbial consortium is a symbiotically associated population of microbes that survive by utilizing the secondary metabolites of the species around them The aerobic bioremediation of phenol has been carried out in a specially designed bioreactor where activated cow dung slurry was used as a source of microbial consortium containing various concentrations of phenol i.e., 100, 250, 500, 1000 mg/L. A phenol concentration of 1000 mg/L was found inhibitory for cow-dung microbial consortium. Higher concentration (1000 mg/L) of phenol degradation was. bioremediation system based on microbial mats. Ancient microbial consortia, such as microbial mats, have evolved the capacity to manage hostile environments and potentially bioremediate metal-contaminated water. To facilitate the engineering applications of microbial mats, the constituent microbial groups of the mat consortium wer Bioaugmentation is a bioremediation option based on increasing the natural in-situ microbial population that possesses the ability to degrade the contaminating pollutant. In this study, a diesel-degrading consortium was obtained from an oil-contaminated soil. The diesel-degrading consortium was grown on wood waste that was plasma-pretreated
A Limited Microbial Consortium Is Responsible for Extended Bioreduction of Uranium in a Contaminated Aquifer Developments in bioremediation of soils and sediments polluted with metals and radionuclides: 2. field research on bioremediation of metals and radionuclides. Rev. Environ Cameotra and Singh reported bioremediation of oil sludge using biosurfactants; the microbial consortium used in their study consisted of two isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one isolate of Rhodococcus erythropolis from oily sludge contaminated soil. Ninety percent of the hydrocarbons were degraded by the consortium after 6 weeks in liquid. Therefore, our main objectives were to (1) develop an environmentally friendly oil-mitigation alternative to chemical dispersants, i.e., bioremediation, through a multi-domain consortium (putative BMC-bioremediator consortium or pBMC-BC) composed of filamentous fungi, yeasts, and bacteria; (2) evaluate the effects of oil, dispersants, and pBMC.
bioremediation of crude oil contaminated soils, as compared to the individual strains. This is the first report on planned microcosm and microbial consortium of Karoon soil contaminated with crude oil. Key words: Bacterial consortia, Bioremediation, Microcosm, Petroleum, Soil INTRODUCTION Nowadays crude oil pollution has become a globa The co-culture of fungus-bacteria was used for the bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove sediment. The comparisons of single biosurfactant rhamonolipid and mixed biosurfactants (rhamonolipid and sophorolipid) added to enhance bioremediation were conducted in this study. The weight ratios of nC17/Pristane and nC18/Phytane were used as biomarker index in this study to monitor. Microbial methylation plays an important role in heavy metals bioremediation, because methylated compounds are frequently volatile. For example, Mercury, Hg (II) can be biomethylated by a number of different bacterial species Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus sp., P. aeruginosa and Brevibacterium iodinium to gaseous methyl. Development of a bacterial consortium comprising oil-degraders and diazotrophic bacteria for elimination of exogenous nitrogen requirement in bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil Author: Chaudhary, Dhiraj Kumar, Bajagain, Rishikesh, Jeong, Seung-Woo, Kim, Jaisoo Source: World journal of microbiology & biotechnology 2019 v.35 no.7 pp. 99 ISSN
J Bender, MC* Duff, P Phillips, and M Hill, Bioremediation and bioreduction of dissolved U(VI) by microbial mat consortium supported on silica gel particles: Environmental Science & Technology [Environ. Sci. Technol.], vol. 34, no. 15, pp. 3235-3241, 1 Aug 2000 Bioremediation of soil heavily contaminated with crude oil and its products: Composition of the microbial consortium. Journal of The Serbian Chemical Society, 2009. Samira Mila. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper Furthermore, the consortium exhibited highly functional robustness to fluctuations in the initial inoculation ratio of the three strains. This system provided new insight into the rational design of more efficient, stable, and robust synthetic microbial consortia applicable in bioenergy and environmental bioremediation
Bioremediation study of naphthalene shows that the microbial consortium and potential microorganism were effective in biodegrading naphthalene at all the three concentrations viz. 250, 500, and 750 mg/L, but the rates and concentrations of degradation of the three selected compounds were higher in the case of microbial consortium A characterization of the microbial consortium by 16S rRNA sequencing revealed the presence of a specific methanotrophic genus (Methylomonas) that is able to simultaneously oxidize CH 4 and reduce SeO 4 2−, along with methanotrophic bacteria, which, upon methane utilization, are capable of generating organic metabolites suitable as electron.
3.1 Factors affecting microbial bioremediation. Bioremediation process is degrading, removing, changing, immobilizing, or detoxifying various chemicals and physical pollutants from the environment through the activity of bacteria, fungi, algae and plants. Microbial consortium has been reported to degrade pollutants more efficiently than. • Microbial bioremediation of PAHs from oily sludge wastes are dependent on these three factors: 1. Physical characteristics of the PAH constituents. 2. The choice of microbial consortium. 3. Factors affecting the biodegradation mechanism. BIOREMEDIATION STRATEGIES • The PAHs molecular sizes affects bioavailability greatly . (2005) found that the consortium was able to degrade petroleum at a 1.5-fold higher rate than single bacterial strains alone . Therefore, microbial consortia are a promising means of petroleum bioremediation that bioremediation by a consortium of bacteria Bacillus coagulans, B. licheniformis, B. subtilis, and Pseudomonas sp. the carrier material alginate-starch with a concentration of 1% at the time bioremediation 14 days can reduce levels of BOD by 81.49%, 81.44% COD, TSS 75%, and 35.82% ammonia by bacteria populations reach 2,89x1013 CFU/ml. Th
Zhao S, Hu N, Chen Z, Zhao B, Liang Y, Bioremediation of Reclaimed Wastewater Used as Landscape Water by Using the Denitrifying Bacterium Bacillus cereus. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 83: 337-340 (2009). Mazzucotelli CA, Durruty I, Kotlar CE, Moreira MR, Ponce AG, Roura SI, Development of a Microbial Consortium for Dairy Wastewater Treatment The mature microbial mat consortium is a dynamic and highly adaptable microbial community that can be applied in different ways for agriculture, aquaculture, bioremediation of contaminants and energy production. The following lists actual and potential applications: Treatment of municipal and agricultural wastewate
Microbial bioremediation of PAHs and NAs is an environmentally favorable strategy, since bioremediation can render harmful materials innocuous. In this work, BioTiger™ (BT), a twelve bacteria consortium isolated from a . Polish oil refinery's waste lagoon, and some of BT's individual component Bioremediation of oil sludge using biosurfactants has been reported by Cameotra and Singh . Microbial consortium consisting of two isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and one isolate Rhodococcus erythropolis from soil contaminated with oily sludge was used in this study. The consortium was able to degrade 90% of hydrocarbons in 6 weeks in liquid. BIOREMEDIATION OF HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS BY INOCULATION WITH A DEHALOGENATING MICROBIAL CONSORTIUM . United States Patent Application 20020015991 . Kind Code: A1 . Abstract: A method for the remediation of a site contaminated with at least one halogenated hydrocarbon, comprising inoculating the site with a microbial consortium which comprises. Bioremediation of Pulp and Paper mill Effluent by Dominant Aboriginal Microbes and Their Consortium , Division of Biosciences, College of Applied Education & Health Sciences, Meerut-250003, India 2Amity Institute of Microbial technology, AMITY University, Noida-201303 microbes and their consortium using bacteria and fungi is scanty.. Joshi N. Bioremediation of heavy metals and organic pollutants through green technology. Int J Adv Sci Res. 2018;3(2):1-4. Panneerselvam P, Choppala G, Kunhikrishnan A, Bolan N. Potential of novel bacterial consortium for the remediation of chromium contamination. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2013;224(12)
The available data indicates that pesticide residues remain in surface soil, leading to toxicity in the soilwater environment. The recent advances in bioremediation technology using microbial consortium has been found effective for treatment of pesticides in soil Bioremediation of Agro-Based Pulp Mill Effluent by Microbial Consortium Comprising Autochthonous Bacteria. The Scientific World Journal, 2012. Yogendra Singh. Download PDF. Download Full PDF Package. This paper. A short summary of this paper. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper SCN − and NH 4 + biodegradation by a consortium of groundwater microorganisms. The enriched microbial consortium, amended with DOC and PO 4 3−, was further investigated to determine the fate of the NH 4 + released by SCN − degradation. The consortium completely degraded SCN − in the filter-sterilised groundwater within a period of 50 h ().The initial NH 4 + present in the groundwater. Examples of microbial interactions important for the bioremediation of contaminant chemicals. (a) Co-metabolism between two strains of Acinetobacter species. (b) Syn- trophism (or synergism) in an anaerobic microbial consortium of D. tiedjei, strain BZ- 2, and a Methanospirillum species growing on 3-chlorobenzoate. (c) Microbial com
The purpose of this research are to know the effect of addition of different nitrogen source, consortium of bacteria, incubation time and the interaction between those variables to the total number of bacteria (CFU/g-soil) and the percentage of degradation (%) in the bioremediation of oil sludge contaminated soil; as well as degraded hydrocarbon components at the best treatment on 6 th week bioremediation using microbial consortium via Capillary Gas Chromatography Ashraf Yehia El-Naggar, Mohamed I. Kobeasy, Nadia R. El-Mouhty Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Taif University, KSA. Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute EPRI, Nasr City, Egypt. Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Egypt Keywords: Oily sludge; Consortium; Microbial; Alfalfa; Hydrocarbons; Remediation. 1. Introduction Until recently scant attention has been paid to the remediation of oily sludge contaminated soils by oil refineries worldwide more likely because of the presence of environmentally hazardous compounds in oily sludge injurious to flora and fuana and to some extent to the human health once exposed.
Several factors influence the success of bioremediation: 1. The type of bacteria present at the site 2. The physical and chemical characteristics of the oil and the oil surface area. The three main approaches to oil-spill bioremediation are: 1. Bio augmentation: Oil-degrading bacteria are added to supplement the existing microbial population. 5. 2 Bioremediation is carried out with the help of life forms, including bacteria, fungi, insects, worms, plants, etc. by taking nutrients such as C, N and P from the contaminant ultimately transforming xenobiotics in to environment friendly products (Vidali, 2001) Bioremediation bacteria is used to clean the oil spils in the ocean through bioremidation therir are specific bacteria for specific contaminants such as hydrocarbons ,which are present in oil and gasolin. Selection of an actinobacteria consortium for enhancing diazinon degradation PPT Version | PDF Version bioremediation by consortium The use of multiple bacteria to biorehabilitate soils contaminated by various man-made toxins. Multiple agents allow the breakdown of toxic metabolites produced in the initial round of detoxification